Unit 14 The Modern Age in Spain
Priveleged, Unpriveleged/Privilegiados, No privilegiados
Nobility /la Nobleza
Upper Class/Clase Alta
Middle Class/Clase Media
Lifestyle/Estilo de vida
In regards to…/En respecto de
Society and culture
In the Modern Age society was divided into two groups; the privileged, like nobility and clerics, who were the upper class, and the unprivileged like farmers and merchants, who were middle class. In general, farmers were very poor, but the richest merchants owned property and tried to imitate the lifestyle of nobility. In regards to religion, society in the Modern Age was intolerant. As a result, the Jews were expelled in 1492 and in 1609, the Moriscos.
The Modern age produced brilliant writers. The printing press was invented in the 15th century and enabled their works to be distributed to a larger area. In the 18th century writers such as Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos reflected on Spain’s various problems.
Art and Architecture
The style of architecture changed each century in the Modern Age. In the 16th century Architects designed buildings in Herrerian style. Named after Juan de Herrera. This style was austere with little decoration. In the 17th century there was the Baroque style which incorporated curved lines and rich ornamentation. In the 18th century the neoclassical style emerged which imitated Roman architecture.
The most important works of sculpture during this time were in churches. Famous sculptures were Gregorio Fernandez and Martinez Montanes. The most outstanding painter of the 16th century was El Greco, who painted elegant, eolongated figures. In the 17th century painting was characterized by realism. At the end of the 18th century, Francisco de Goya stands out as one of the greatest artists of all time.
The Development of Science in the 18th century
In the 18th century science and education were highly valued. Many museums, observatories and botanical gardens were founded. Academies like the Royal Academy of Languages and economic societies were created. This tells us that education was considered to be very important.