Unit 4- The Earth
Volcanic Chimney-Chiminea Volcánica
Volcanic Cone-Cono Volcánico
There is an enormous amount of energy in the interior of the Earth. This energy is so great that it can break the crust of the Earth. It can also produce earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Earthquakes are sudden movements of the Earth’s crust caused by the sudden release of energy from beneath the surface. Powerful earthquakes can be very destructive. The vibrations can cause buildings to collapse. They can also change the course of a river or change the shape of the land. Earthquakes beneath the sea are called seaquakes and they can produce gigantic waves called tsunamis.
Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s crust where magma comes to the surface. Magma is liquid rock found deep inside the Earth. It is only called lava when it comes to the surface. Magma goes up through the volcanic chimney and out an opening called a crater. Volcanoes can expel gases, ash, and rock fragments that form the volcanic cone. Many volcanoes are found in the oceans. Islands are formed when the volcanic cone reaches sea level, like the Canary Islands.
There are three types of volcanoes:
Active: they have erupted at least once in the last 10,000 years.
Dormant: they are sleeping but can become active again.
Extinct: they have not erupted in the last 10,000 years.
The most dangerous effects of a volcanic eruption are the toxic gases and burning clouds. Violent volcanic eruptions can destroy entire cities, islands and change Earth’s climate